Volume 1, Issue 1, June 2013, Page: 27-31
Assessment of the Prophylactic Efficacy of a Crude Aqueous Extract of Morinda Lucida Leaves on Plasmodium Falciparum Infection of Albino Rats
Oko Augustine Okpani, Department of Biotechnology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
Nweke Friday Nwalo, Department of Biotechnology, Federal University, Ndufu Alike-Ikwo, Nigeria
Ugwu Okechukwu Ogbonnia, Department of Biochemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
Ehihia Loveth Ude., Department of Biochemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
Received: May 20, 2013;       Published: Jun. 30, 2013
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajbls.20130101.15      View  2910      Downloads  92
Abstract
A study on the prophylactic efficacy of a crude aqueous extract of the leaves of Morinda lucida on plasmodium falciparum was carried out using sixteen albino rats grouped into curative, suppressive, prophylactic and control ;A,B,C and D respectively. The rats were inoculated with the parasites and allowed for 21days before 2mls of the extract was administered to each of the rats in group A twice daily for 3days, and for group B, 2mls was administered just once, 3hours before scarifying them, while for group C, 2mls was given twice daily for 3days before inoculation with the parasites, but group D were not given the extract. The results showed that the extract cleared the parasites in group A rats and did not allow its growth in group C rats, but did not suppress it in group B rats, while the control showed the ability of the parasites surviving in the rats. There was a significant at (P< 0.05) weight loss by the rats in all the groups, following the inoculation of the parasite. It can be inferred therefore, that a crude aqueous extract of Morinda lucida has a prophylactic efficacy in addition to its curative activity against plasmodium parasites and could be used to mitigate the impact of plasmodium parasites.
Keywords
Maleria, Morinda Lucida, Plasmodium Falciparum
To cite this article
Oko Augustine Okpani, Nweke Friday Nwalo, Ugwu Okechukwu Ogbonnia, Ehihia Loveth Ude., Assessment of the Prophylactic Efficacy of a Crude Aqueous Extract of Morinda Lucida Leaves on Plasmodium Falciparum Infection of Albino Rats, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2013, pp. 27-31. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbls.20130101.15
Reference
[1]
Akpantah, A. O., Oremous, A. A., Ajala, M. O., Nownha, C. C., and Okanlawon, (2003). The Effect of Crude Extract of Garcina Kola Seed on the Histology and Hormonal Milliew of Male Spragu-Dawley Rats Reproductive Organs. Nigeria Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences, 2: 6-40.
[2]
Asusu, I. U., and Chineme, C. N. (1990). Effect of Morinda lucida Leaf Extract on Trypanosome Brucei brucei Infection in Mice.Journal of Ethno pharmacology, 30: 31-307.
[3]
Awe, S.O., and Makinde, J.M. (1998). Evaluation of Sensitivity of Plasmodium Falciparum to Morinda lucida Leaf Extract Sample Using Rabbit In Vitro Micro test Technique. India Journal of Pharmacology, 30: 51-53.
[4]
Baldessarini, R. J. (2008). Drugs and the Treatment of Malaria, the Pharmacological Basis of Malaria Therapies, 6th Edition, Macmillan.New York 301 – 417.
[5]
Boesech, C., Ayala, F. J. and Wolfe, N. D. (2009). ABC of Medicinal plants, Nigerian Journal of Botany, 3: 1-24.
[6]
Debayo, A.M., Ogbonna, E.O. and Raphael, E.A.(2005). Introduction to the Study of Herbal Medicine and Traditional Drugs 2nd Edition, Oxford Press, 240-251.
[7]
De Souza, C., and Werner, W. (2005). Forms of Malaria in Tropical West African, Asian Journal of Andrologys, 7: 405-410.
[8]
Encyclopaedia Wikipedia, (1998). 15th Edition, Wikipedia publishers. 88-106.
[9]
Faciola, S. (2009).Comcopia: A Source book of Edible Plants. American Journal 4:23-43.
[10]
Glass, J., and James, P. (2007). Malaria Prevention and Management. New England Journal of Physiological Sciences, 22: 129-134.
[11]
Herbert, V. and Andrew A.A. (1980). Malignant Malaria. Journal of Gastroenterology, 15: 761-768.
[12]
Iwu, C. O., and Adesogna, E. K. (1999). Anthraquinones and orwuwancin from Morinda lucida as possible Agents in Fasciolasis and Schistosomaiasis Control Fitoteripia , 55: 63-259.
[13]
Jason, C. W. Peter, J.S. (2010). Reversal of Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium Falciparum using combinations of chemosensitizers. Antimicrobial Agent Chemotherapy. 45 3171-3174
[14]
Jethro, S. O., and Makinde, J. M. (1997). Evaluation of Anti-Diabetic property of Morina lucida leaves in Streptozotocin-debetic rats. British Journal of Pharmacology, 51: 1224-1321.
[15]
Kloss, S. and Nelson, L. (1997). Structural Activity Studies:Analysis of Antileishmanial and Antimalaria Activities of anthraquinones from Morinda lucida. Planta Medicinal Journal, 65: 61-323
[16]
Koumaglo,K., Gbeassor,M, and Nikabu,O.(1992). Effect of Three compounds extracted from Morinda lucida on Plasmodium Falciparum., .Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3:319-323.
[17]
Mbogo, C. M., Takang, E. E., Diffo, J.L., Pike, B.L., and Rosenthal, B, M. (2003). Spatial and Temporal Hetenogeneity of Anopheles Mosquito and Plasmodium Faciparum Transmission along the Kenvan Coast. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 68: 315-334.
[18]
Mutabingwu T. K. (2003). Treating Malaria during Pregnancy in Africa. 25: 66-73. African Journal of Medicine, 52:113-120.
[19]
Nwaigwe, C. I., Adegunloye, B. J., and Sofola, O. A. (1997). Effect of Chloroquine on the Contractility of the smooth muscle of the rat uterus, trachea and urinary bladder. Basic clinical journal of pharmacology 8: 279-285.
[20]
Obih, P.O., Makinde, J. M., and Laoye, J. O. (1998). Investigations of various extracts of Morinda lucida for Antimalarial actions on Plasmodium berghei berghie in Mice. African journal of medicine, medical science. 14: 9-45.
[21]
Oliver–Bever, B. (1986). Medicinal plants in Tropical West African Cambridge, 6th Edition Cambridge University press, 89-90.
[22]
Olumide, S. Akinsomisoye, A. E., Yinusa, R., Toyin, M., And Akintola. E. (2008). Malaria in Pregnant Women and the Effect on infant Development; Implication for Growth, Resistance to Disease and Management. Journal of Ethnopharamacology, 12: 225-231.
[23]
Peng, Q. I (2009). Biomedical Research of Medicinal Plants. Chinese journal of Eco-Agriculture, 17: 23-36.
[24]
Prasad, S. D. (2009). Clastogenic effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice. Journal of Toxicology, 5: 138.
[25]
Raddy, V. G., and Sinna, S. (2000). Chloroquine Poisoning Report of two Cases. American Journal of Physiology, 44: 1017-1020.
[26]
Raji, V., Boloinwa, A. F. (1997). Antifertility activity of Quassia Amarai in the male Rats In Vivo Analysis. 64: 1067-1068.
[27]
Raji, Y. Ifabunmi, S. O., Akinsomisoye O. S., Moralanyo, A. O., and Oloyo, A. K. (2005). Gonadal Response to Anti Psychotic Drugs, Chloropromaxine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats. International Journal of Pharmacology, 1: 92-287.
[28]
Rich, S. M., Leendertz, F. H., Xu, G., Lebreton, M., and Aminake, M. N, (2009). The Origin of Malignant Malaria, National Academy of Sciences. A journal of physiology, 24: 50-62.
[29]
Sittie, A. A., Lemminuh, E., and Oslen, C. E. (1999). Structure-Activity Studies: In Vitro Antileishmanial and Antimalaria Activity of Anthraquinone from Morinda lucida plant. British Medical Journal , 65 : 61-259.
[30]
Snedecor, G. W., and Cochran, W. G. (1980). Statical Method, 7th Edition: Lowa State University Press, 215.
[31]
Silverthorn, D. U. (2004). Pregnancy and Parturition in Human Physiology. An
[32]
Integrated Approach, 3rd Edition Pearson Education, Cambridge University Press, London. 821-828.
[33]
World Health Organization (1998). World Health Organization Laboratory Manual for Examination of Human Semen and Semen-Cervical Mucus Interaction, 2nd
[34]
Edition: Cambridge University Press, London 1-10
Browse journals by subject