Volume 5, Issue 5, October 2017, Page: 92-95
Occurrence of Aflatoxin Producing Mould in Irvingia Gabonensis (Bush Mango) Seeds Sold Within Jos Metropolis
Katnap Ramnan Selvyat, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Arome A. F., Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Zakari H., Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Juliet Okechalu, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Nanbol K. K., Department of Plant Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Kumzhi P. R., Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Received: Feb. 23, 2017;       Accepted: Mar. 21, 2017;       Published: Oct. 18, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajbls.20170505.12      View  2070      Downloads  195
Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of aflatoxin producing mould in Irvingia gabonensis (Bush Mango) seeds sold within Jos metropolis. The total fungal load per sample was gotten from plate count and expressed as Colony Forming Units per gram of sample (cfu/g). The aflatoxigenicity of the fungal isolates was also evaluated on Coconut Extract Agar (CEA) by exposing the reversed side of plates to 365nm ultraviolet light. The result showed that mean fungal count of I. gabonensis ranges from 3.2×106 to 4.0 × 106 cfu / g. The fungi that were implicated for the contamination of the I. gabonensis include: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumingatus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus niger, Peneillium chrisogenu, Verticelium leceanii, Rhizopus oryzea, Fusarium sporotrichoides and yeast. Strains of V. leceanii, yeast and A. flavus were the most predominant at 47.9%, 37.5% and 35.4% respectively. By a way of comparison, the result also showed that Bush Mango seeds from Terminus and Gadabiyu were the most contaminated, followed by Faringada and then Angwa Rukuba. Out of the 39 Aspergillus species isolated, only 4 strains exhibited aflatoxin producing potential. The presence of these aflatoxigenic mould on I. gabonensis seeds presents high health risk and calls for more regulations and periodical assessment of Bush Mango seeds sold in open markets.
Keywords
Aflatoxigenic, Fungi, Irvingia Gabonensis, Mycotoxin
To cite this article
Katnap Ramnan Selvyat, Arome A. F., Zakari H., Juliet Okechalu, Nanbol K. K., Kumzhi P. R., Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi, Occurrence of Aflatoxin Producing Mould in Irvingia Gabonensis (Bush Mango) Seeds Sold Within Jos Metropolis, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2017, pp. 92-95. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbls.20170505.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Adebajo LO. Spoilage moulds and aflatoxins from poultry feeds. Die Nahrung, 1992; 36(6):523-529.
[2]
Barnett HL, Hunter BB. Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi. 4th ed APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. 1998; 218.
[3]
Becer, U. K., & Filazi, A. (2010). Aflatoxins, Nitrates and Nitrites Analysis In TheCommercial Cat And Dog Foods. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 18(11), 2523-2527.
[4]
Bosco, F., & Mollea, C. (2012). Mycotoxins in Food. In: Valdez B. (ed), Food Industrial Processes- Methods and Equipment, InTech, 169-200, Available from, http://www.intechopen.com/books/food-industrial-processes-methods-and-equipment, (accessed 13 May 2012).
[5]
cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/20401/InTech-Aflatoxins_contamination_analysis_ and_control.pdf, (accessed 13 May 2012).
[6]
Davis ND, Iyer SK, Diener UL. Improved method of screening for aflatoxin with a coconut agar medium. Appl. Environ. Microb. 1987; 53: 1593-1595.
[7]
Dors, G. C., Caldas, S. S., Feddern, V., Bemvenuti, R. H., Hackbart, H. C. S., Souza, M. M., Oliveira, M. S., Garda-Buffon, J., Primel, E. G., & Badiale-Furlong, E. (2011). Aflatoxins: Contamination, Analysis and Control. In Guevara-González RG. (Ed), Aflatoxins- Biochemistry and Molcecular Biology, InTech, 415-438, Available from, http://
[8]
Hussein, H. S. and Brasel, J. M. (2001). Toxicity, metabolism and impact of mycotoxin on human and animals. Toxicology, 167: 101-134.
[9]
Miller, J. D., Beardall, J. M. (1994). In Miller, J. D. and Trenholm H. L. (Eds). Mycotoxins in grains: compounds other than aflatoxin. Eagan press. St. Paul, Minnesota USA. Pp. 487-593.
[10]
Negedu, A., Atawodi, S. E., Ameh, J. B., Umoh, V. J., & Tanko, H. Y. (2011). Economic and Health Perspectives of Mycotoxins: A Review. Continental Journal of Biomedical Sciences, 5(1), 5-26.
[11]
Okafor, J. C. (1978). Development of forest tree crops for food supplies to Nigeria. Forest Ecology Management 17: 1-11.
[12]
Olayemi FF, Raji AO, Adedayo MR. Microbiological quality of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) smoked with Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) developed smoking kiln. Inter. Res. J. Microb. 2012; 3(13):426-430.
[13]
Shaltout FA, Edris AM. Contamination of shawerma with pathogenic yeasts. Assiut Vet. Med. J. 1999; 41:170-176.
[14]
Shanthini CF, Patterson J. Fungi in salted and dried fish of Tuticorin, Southeast coast of India. Fisheries Technologists, Cochin. India. 2003; 412-417.
[15]
Shuaib, F. M. B., Ehiri, J., Abdullahi, A., Williams, J. H., & Jolly, P. E. (2010). Reproductive health effects of aflatoxins: A review of the literature. Reproductive Toxicology, 29, 262-270.
Browse journals by subject