Volume 7, Issue 3, June 2019, Page: 63-67
Prevalence and Multi-Drug Resistance Pattern of Food Poisoning Enteric Bacteria Associated with Diarrhoea Patients
Douye Victor Zige, Department of Microbiology, Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Christian Kosisochukwu Anumudu, Department of Microbiology, Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Received: Mar. 6, 2019;       Accepted: Apr. 26, 2019;       Published: Jul. 12, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajbls.20190703.14      View  52      Downloads  21
Diarrhoea continues to be a burden especially in developing countries of Africa. However, the treatment of diarrhoea is complicated due to the increase in resistance of enteric and food poisoning bacteria to commonly utilized antibiotics. This work was focused on the identification of enteric bacteria pathogens implicated in cases of diarrhoea orchestrated by food poisoning by use of specialized identification media and biochemical assays. Eight different bacteria species including; E. coli, S. typhi, Non-typhoid Salmonella, Proteus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter sp., Klebsiella sp. and Non-Sorbitol utilizing E. coli were isolated from diarrhoea patients in Yenagoa, Nigeria with different frequencies. Of all isolates, E. coli had the highest frequency of occurrence (29.9%), followed by Proteus sp. (20.8%), Non-typhoid Salmonella (19.3%) and S. typhi (10.7%). Other isolates had frequencies less than 10% respectively. The isolated enteric bacteria were subjected to antibiotics susceptibility assay by the Kirby-Bauer method using Ofloxacin (5μg), Ciprofloxacin (5μg), Gentamicin (10μg), Ceftazidine (30μg), Nitrofuratoin (300μg), Augmentin (30μg), Cefixime (5μg) and Cefuroxime (30μg). All the bacteria isolates assayed showed 100% resistance to Ceftazidine and Cefuroxime while all isolates with the exception of one Citrobacter sp. was resistant to augmentin, thus indicating the unsuitability of these drugs in the treatment of diarrhoea. Majority of the bacteria isolates showed multidrug resistance patterns, with E. coli, Proteus sp. and Klebsiella sp. showing a 100% resistance to the same six (Ceftazidine, Cefuroxime, Gentamycin, Cefixime, Nitrofuratoin and Augmentin) out of the eight antibiotics assayed. This is of public health significance and shows a growing trend of multidrug resistance to commercially available antibiotics utilized in the management of diarrhoea which can cause an increase in morbidity and mortality associated with acute diarrhoea.
Antibiotics, Multi-Drug Resistance, Food Poisoning, Diarrhoea
To cite this article
Douye Victor Zige, Christian Kosisochukwu Anumudu, Prevalence and Multi-Drug Resistance Pattern of Food Poisoning Enteric Bacteria Associated with Diarrhoea Patients, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp. 63-67. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbls.20190703.14
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Vardakas, K. Z, Rafailidis, P. I, Konstantelias, A. A and Falagas, M. E. (2013). Predictors of mortality in patients with infections due to multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria: the study, the patient, the bug or the drug? J Infect. 66: 401–14.
Bodi, M, Ardanuy, C and Rello, J (2001) Impact of Gram-positive resistance on outcome of nosocomial pneumonia. Crit Care Med. 2001; 29: 82–6.
Ifeanyi, C. I. C, Isu, R. N, Akpa, A. l. C and Ikeneche, N. F (2010). Enteric bacteria pathogens associated with diarrhoea of children in the federal capital territory Abuja, Nigeria. New York Science Journal; 3 (1): 62-69.
Sinclair, M. I, Harris, A. H, Kirk, M, and Fairley, C. K (2003). Cost of community gastroenteritis. Journal of gastroenterology hepatology. 18: 322-328.
Black, R. E., Cousens, S., Johnson, H. L., Lawn, J. E., Rudan, I. and Bassani, D. G. (2010). Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 375: 1969–87.
Snyder, J. D, and Merson, M. H (1982). The magnitude of the global problem of acute diarrheal disease: a review of active surveillance data. Bull WHO; 60: 605-613.
World Health Organisation (2006). Guidelines for Drinking water quality, first addendum to third edition vol. 1. World Health Organization Press, Geneva, Switzerland.
Lee, W. S. (2000). Gastrointestinal infections in children in the Southeast Asia Region: Emerging issues. Review J Ped Gastroenterol Nutr. 30: 241-5.
Nguyen, T. V., Le P. V., Le Ch. H. and Weintraub, A. (2005). Antibiotic resistance in diarrheagenic Escherchia coli and Shigella strains isolated from children in Hanoi, Vietnam. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.; 49: 816-9.
Karam, G, Chastre, J, Wilcox, M. H, Vincent, J. L (2016). Antibiotic strategies in the era of multidrug resistance. Crit Care. 20 (1): 136.
Rubio, F. G, Oliveira, V. D. C, Rangel, R. M. C (2013). Trends in bacterial resistance in a tertiary university hospital over one decade. Brazilian J Infect Dis. 17 (4): 480-482.
Mansouri, S. and Shareifi, S. (2002). Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections, and that of human fecal flora, in the Southeast of Iran. Microbial Drug Resistance; 8: 123-8.
Wayne, P. A (2001). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 17th International Supplement. CLSI M100- S17 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
Wayne, P. A. (2002). National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard. Performance standard for antimicrobial disc susceptibility testing. Twelfth International Supplement 2002; Approved standard M100-S12. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.
Adegunloye, D. V. (2005). Carrier rate of enteric bacteria associated with diarrhoea in children and pupils in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology: 5 (2) 162-164.
Olowe, O. A, Olayemi, A. B, Eniola, K. I. T, and Adeyeba, O. A (2003). Aetiological agents of diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Osogbo, Osun State. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology; 4 (2): 62-66.
Ogbu, O, Agumadu, N, Uneke, C. J, and Amadi, E. S (2008). Aetiology of acute infantile diarrhoea in the south-eastern Nigeria: an assessment of microbiological and antibiotic sensitivity profile. The Internet Journal of Third World Medicine; 7 (1).
Vargas, M, Gascon, J, Casls, C, Schellenberg, D, Urassa, H., Kahigwa, E, Ruiz, J, and Vila, J (2004). Etiology of diarrhea in children less than five years of age in Ifakara, Tanzania. American Journal of Medicine and Hygiene; 70 (5) 536-539.
Ohimain, E. I., Zige, D. V. and Sridhar, M. K. C. (2013). Occurrence of Salmonella in Surface and Borehole Waters from Four Coastal Communities in Bayelsa State. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 6 (4): 55-61.
Zige, D. V, Ohimain, E. I, and Sridhar, K. C. M (2013). Enteric Bacteria from ready to eat food vended in Amassoma community in Niger Delta and its health implication. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology; 6 (4) 62-65.
Browse journals by subject